Dates
Characters
Theories and discoveries
1600
Galileo Galilei
Study of sound and vibrating strings
1600
William Gilbert
Static electricity and magnetism
1604
Johannes Kepler
Mirrors, lenses and vision
1604
Galileo Galilei
Distance for falling object increases as square of time
1608
Hans Lippershey
Optical telescope
1609
Lippershey and Janssen
The compound microscope
1609
Johannes Kepler
First and second laws of planetary motion
1609
Thomas Harriot
Maps moon using a telescope
1609
Johannes Kepler
Notion of energy
1610
Galileo Galilei
Builds a telescope
1610
Galileo Galilei
Observes the phases of Venus
1610
Galileo Galilei
Observes moons of Jupiter
1610
Galileo Galilei
Observes craters on the moon
1610
Galileo Galilei
Observes stars in the Milky Way
1610
Galileo Galilei
Observes structures around Saturn
1611
Fabricius, Galileo, Harriot, Scheiner
Sunspots
1611
Marco de Dominis
Explanation of rainbows
1611
Johannes Kepler
Principles of the astronomical telescope
1612
Simon Marius
Andromeda galaxy
1612
Galileo Galilei
Hydrostatics
1613
Galileo Galilei
Principle of inertia
1615
S. de Caus
Forces and work
1618
Francesco Grimaldi
Interference and diffraction of light
1619
Johannes Kepler
Third law of planetary motion
1619
Johannes Kepler
Explains why a comets tail points away from the Sun
1619
Rene Descartes
Vision of rationalism
1620
Francis Bacon
The empirical scientific method
1620
Francis Bacon
Heat is motion
1620
Jan Baptista van Helmont,
Introduces the word “gas”
1621
Willebrod Snell
The sine law of refraction
1624
Galileo Galilei
Theory of tides
1626
Godfried Wendilin
Verification of Kepler’s laws for moons of Jupiter
1630
Cabaeus
Attraction and repulsion of electric charges
1631
Pierre Gassendi
Observes a transit of Mercury
1632
Galileo Galilei
Galilean relativity
1632
Galileo Galilei
Support for Copernicus’ heliocentric theory
1632
John Ray
Water thermometer
1636
G. Pers de Roberval
Gravitational forces are mutual attraction
1636
Marin Mersenne
Speed of sound
1637
Rene Descartes
Inertia, mechanistic physics
1637
Rene Descartes
Refraction, rainbow and clouds
1638
Galileo Galilei
Motion and friction
1639
Jeremiah Horrocks
observes a transit of Venus
1640
Evangelista Torricelli
Theory of hydrodynamics
1641
Ferdinand II
Sealed thermometer
1642
Blaise Pascal
Mechanical calculator
1644
Evangelista Torricelli
Mercury barometer and artificial vacuum
1645
Ismael Boulliau
Inverse square law for central force acting on planets
1648
Blaise Pascal
Explains barometer as a result of atmospheric pressure
1650
Otto von Guericke
Demonstration of the power of vacuum using two large hemispheres and 8 horses